Limitations of Design – What They Mean

Design limitations – Just a few important ones to note

If you have ever discussed with me anything about design work and what I can do, you may have heard me talk about limitations; The defining feature of design. Nothing in design can be finished without knowing its limitations. Otherwise everything would be much larger than they are, in which we could not use them in vehicles as easily. Even in HT environments, some LF acoustical models cannot effectively be optimized due to physical constraints. Because of this, we have to alter everything. This is what makes design so complex.

So what limitations do we normally deal with? It is important to know this, because understanding them will help you understand what you can efficiently get out of what you are trying to do.

One of the first limitations is the mentioned physical design size. Good examples are for car audio use. Most of us do not have the room to use what we want for subwoofer boxes because we cannot fit them in the vehicle. We compensate by altering a design to best match the frequency range of interest without losing much efficiency. And efficiency is the key to performance. In fact, sensitivity is the focus of design in theory. The fundamental concepts and formulas behind it all, lie within a specific value for each calculated design part (port, box, tuning, etc); all figured by a certain sensitivity. The problem is, the normal sizes are too large due to coupling the design to low frequency waveforms.

Low frequencies are too large for vehicles. They are too large for some homes as well. They travel further in a single cycle than higher frequencies. This helps with output, but only due to reflections, not the box. We take advantage of reflections to help us increase efficiency as close as possible to the original design characteristics. At least… thats what I do for you. So physically we are never designing as efficiently as we can unless we have the room.

Because of the needed room for low frequencies to become coupled, we have the need to make a box as large as it can be. The smaller the design, the lower the efficiency in conventional theory. But again, we can only go so large. Depth is an issue, height is an issue, and width is an issue. Changing the design to match these limitations from manufacturer specs is essential in increasing efficiency. If we all used manufacturer specs… we would all have the same boxes… with maybe 1-2% efficiency at most.

The next limitation is with the electrical circuits (before combined with mechanical and acoustical in the actual circuit of a loudspeaker). I am talking about the circuit that supplies the design; your vehicle, your tube amp, those. In some cases, the electrical cannot supply the design circuit efficiently, so we tend to change resistance to the lowest ohm rating possible. This is not as good for SQ if you want better transience, but still… it is popular among most. So, the wiring can change the design as well with how many volts go into it, and what kind of acoustical output comes out. Making sure you have enough power is essential in the design doing what it is supposed to do. Distortion lowers, and everything works better. Cost can be an internal limitation of power because sometimes we ask for more than we can afford. If I want a design for 8 15s, and I cannot buy enough amps (or upgrades) to cover the power required by the design circuit, I may create clipping or distortion and damage the setup by trying to push it too hard. Making sure you have an amplified input of at least 2X the peak of the design requirements will help you from damaging the setup.

I have had a few times where some will say, “That’s all this will do?” when the design is designed within their limitations. They then up the power or upgrade their electrical and BOOM… there goes their subs. The design is completed around no more than RMS and lowest possible resistance of the amplifier(s) regardless of what you “want” to throw at them. Understanding this, will help you understand what is required to get the most out of it on your end. By designing for the highest possible output and lowest possible resistance, lower output will be expected by not matching the power and resistance as it was designed… if that makes sense.

The Effects of Limiting Beliefs

We all have beliefs and some of them serve us very well, but there are other beliefs that we have that limit us in our lives. Sometimes they are recognized as actually a belief, but many times these limiting beliefs come masked as a fear or disabling emotion.

They can be very evident on the surface or they can be reflected in unconscious thoughts and actions. They will generally keep a person from doing something they desire to do or they may just make the person feel too weak and disempowered to try to move ahead. When a belief is limiting or disempowering, it will actually feel like a heavy weight.

Almost 99 percent of the time these limiting beliefs are formed up until the age of four years old. Typically an incident happens during that age that is perceived by the child in a certain way or something is said that the child takes seriously in their understanding. Then the pattern is set and this limiting belief will manifest through the person’s life in a variety of ways.

Limiting beliefs can hinder you from receiving what you desire to have or do in your life. An example would be – Suppose you wanted to be a successful salesperson. You work hard, take all the motivational and sales seminars, yet success seems to elude you. It could be that when you were a child someone made a remark that sales people are dishonest. You want to be successful and honest at the same time but now you have a belief instilled in you that is limiting you from enjoying the success you desire. You may consciously be aware of this belief or you may not.

Limiting beliefs can also be the cause of feelings of low self worth, self love, and other disempowering emotions or they may be manifested as fears such as fear of flying, heights, riding horses, water, crowds, etc. Limiting beliefs, fears, and emotions may later manifest in the body as a physical health issue.

So what can you do about these limiting beliefs? Do you have to live with them the rest of your life? The answer is no. You have several options. Limiting beliefs are like a big boulder sitting in your path. You can push against and maybe eventually after much hard work it may move out of the way. You may find a way through it which also entails a lot of effort and time. In either of these methods you may have not located where the belief originated. If that origination point is not found, the belief has the ability to regenerate itself.

Or you can energetically release it and replace it with an empowering belief. By going to the origin of the limiting belief and releasing the original belief which may or may not be the same as the present day belief, you remove the energetic pattern that has been influencing and affecting your life. Once this original belief has been released, it leaves open a space for an empowering belief to be inserted. This new belief will then create a different energetic pattern for your life to be formed around and influenced by. This is a very quick, effective, and powerful way to change a limiting belief and takes a lot less time and effort to do so. Changes in your life are felt immediately and are permanent.

It’s All BS! Belief Systems – How to Identify and Rewire Your Limiting Beliefs

Beliefs are your building materials, the very blueprint from which you build your life. If you are using a belief system that is out of alignment with your true self, who you really are, you are building a life that does not reflect who you truly are. Belief Systems can be empowering or limiting.

A Belief is just a thought you keep thinking, making it true for you. That means that not all of your beliefs are true. Believing in them is what makes it TRUE FOR YOU. Your beliefs are what you filter all your experiences through. This is why two people can hear the exact same thing, but have two totally different experiences and reactions to it because everything is filtered through each persons belief system.

If you believe you have to work hard for money, then you’d better be prepared for a life of hard work. If you believe the economy is impossibly broken, you’re gonna go broke. If you believe you can never get thin, it’s too hard to get thin, you are too old to get thin, diets never work for you, you are right!

“Whether you think you can or whether you think you can’t – you are right.” Henry Ford.

Our beliefs guide everything we do, our actions, thoughts, relationships. But remember, beliefs are a choice! We can choose limiting beliefs or we can choose unlimited beliefs like “Everything always works out for me.” Changing a belief is really just a thought away. And then another thought, and another thought, and another thought. What you believe you receive and achieve!

Limiting Beliefs are like weeds in the garden of your mind. Pick them out so that new, unlimited beliefs can grow! So how do we find them and pick them out? First of all, if there is an area of your life, say financial, physical, relationships, etc. that you are not where you want to be, you have limiting beliefs that are holding you back in that area. Here’s one way to pluck out your limiting beliefs:

Make a statement to yourself about something you want to be or have such as “I am rich” or “I am thin”. Then listen closely to the “self-talk” in your mind after making the statement. What are the thoughts your mind thinks after each statement? Does it say: “You will never have enough money!” or “Making money is not easy!”? or “You’ll never be thin”, or “It’s too hard to lose weight!”

OK, you have just found some of your Limiting Beliefs! Now, how to go about changing them?

The first thing is to accept your limiting beliefs without judgment, just observe what your limiting beliefs are. By just observing without judgment, you are releasing the resistance to your limiting beliefs. What you resist, persists! You are not that belief and that belief is not you. They are simply persistent thoughts that you have allowed to become a truth in your life. And now it’s time to change them into unlimited beliefs!

Write down your limiting beliefs on a piece of paper. It might say:

  • I will never be rich
  • I do not deserve to be rich
  • I have always been fat and I am going to stay that way
  • Nothing ever works out for me
  • I never have enough time
  • My job sucks
  • The economy is bad so I don’t have a chance
  • I am afraid of success
  • I am afraid of failure
  • I will never find my perfect partner
  • Etc. etc.

Now, on another piece of paper, write out your NEW corresponding unlimited beliefs, such as:

  • I have everything I could ever want
  • I deserve to be rich, it is my birthright
  • Becoming thin is easy
  • Everything ALWAYS works out for me
  • I have all the time I need to do what I want to do
  • My job is perfect for now and something even better is coming
  • I am worthy of success and I choose it now
  • There are no failures, only lessons that empower me
  • My perfect partner is seeking me too!
  • Etc. etc.

What I like to do now that I have my list of unlimited beliefs is to crumple up and burn my list of limiting beliefs. It is a symbolic gesture that I now longer accept that belief as true. Then I read my list of new unlimited beliefs and keep it near for whenever I need it.

You can also challenge your limiting beliefs by asking yourself:

  • What would happen if I didn’t?
  • What would happen if I did?
  • Who says?
  • What stops me?
  • How do I know?
  • Has it ever been different?

Practicing new unlimiting beliefs, one by one, creates unlimited thinking. Because the truth is, we are truly unlimited beings, only limited by our own thoughts. Let’s start thinking unlimited!

Requirements Imposed on Limited Civil Litigation in the State of California

The topic of this article is a brief discussion of the statutes governing limited civil litigation in California. The statutes governing this are found in Sections 85 through 100 of the Code of Civil Procedure.

Anyone involved in limited civil litigation should carefully read the statutes as the author has worked on numerous cases where the opposing party, including opposing counsel, has propounded an excessive number of discovery requests, and/or has propounded special interrogatories or requests for admission with subparts, for example, a, b, c, d, which are prohibited. Taking this step will avoid situations like the ones just mentioned in which the author prepared objections based on the fact that the discovery requests did not comply with the statutes.

Code of Civil Procedure § 86 lists several different types of cases which are considered limited civil cases. Generally speaking a limited civil case is a civil case in which the principal demand does not exceed $25,000.00, not including attorney’s fees, prejudgment interest or costs.

Note that while the demand in most unlawful detainer (eviction) actions does not exceed $25,000.00, that the normal rules that apply to limited civil cases do NOT apply.

And a limited civil action may be withdrawn from the provisions of Sections 85 through 100 of the Code of Civil Procedure on the grounds that it is impractical to prosecute or defend the action within the limitations of its provisions. The request must be made by noticed motion.

The pleadings allowed in limited civil cases are, complaints, answers, cross-complaints, answers to cross-complaints and general demurrers. Special demurrers are not allowed. Motions to strike are only allowed on the ground that the damages or relief sought are not supported by the allegations of the complaint..

The use of discovery questions in limited civil cases is extremely limited as Code of Civil Procedure § 94 imposes a total limit of any combination of 35 discovery requests including interrogatories, requests for admission, requests for production of documents. See said code section for the other limitations imposed such as only one oral or written deposition.

Note that in limited civil cases, form interrogatories count towards the limit of 35, and that Judicial Council Form DISC-004, titled form interrogatories-limited civil cases MUST be used as they do not contain subparts. Use of any other form interrogatories would be grounds for the responding party to object.

However, supplemental interrogatories and supplemental demands to produce documents may still be utilized.

A party may file a motion with the Court to be relieved from the discovery limitations for limited civil cases. They must show the Court that they cannot adequately prosecute or defend the action without the additional discovery.

The parties may also stipulate to additional discovery so anyone contemplating filing such a motion should first contact the opposing counsel or party to determine whether they will agree to stipulate to the additional discovery.

The author sincerely hopes that you have enjoyed this article.

Yours Truly,
Stan Burman

Copyright 2012 Stan Burman. All rights reserved.

Peaceful Parenting(r) and Setting Limits

Peaceful Parenting® is not “Permissive Parenting.” Just because Peaceful Parents understand that they cannot control their children’s behavior does not mean that whatever a child does is acceptable. As Peaceful Parents we are still obligated to set standards and limits for our children.

In fact, understanding Peaceful Parenting® means understanding why there is a need for setting limits and standards for our children. Our children are born with a genetic instruction for freedom. But this does not mean there are no limits. A Peaceful Parent’s job is to establish boundaries, allowing only as much freedom as a child has responsible behaviors to handle. As we increase our children’s freedom we must teach him/her the increased responsible behaviors to handle the additional freedom. This means setting standards and setting limits.

The distinction between Peaceful Parenting® and other kinds of parenting programs is not in the kinds of standards and limits set. The distinction is how we manage ourselves and our children when our children do not meet our standards or abide by our limits.

Conventional wisdom teaches adults to ensure that children will meet standards and abide by limits by externally controlling the child. If a child does not do his homework, many parents would either punish the child by taking away some privilege or threaten this action. If a child does not follow the limits of his curfew, many parents would take away the child’s privilege of going out the next time.

Many Peaceful Parents expect that their children will complete their homework. Parents who are attempting to follow Peaceful Parenting® ideas still set a curfew when their children leave the house. However, if a Peaceful Parent’s child fails to complete the assigned homework or does not comply with the agreed upon curfew, Peaceful Parents do not attempt to externally control their children. Threats, punishments and consequences are not how these parents work with their children around expectation and limits.

Giving up the urge to externally control our children into compliance is difficult. Because we are parents with expectations we have pictures in our quality worlds of our children meeting our expectations. When they don’t we still feel the urge to get our children to do what we want. The difference is that with Peaceful Parenting® knowledge, we understand that trying to externally control our children is not the answer.

But what can a parent who is learning Peaceful Parenting® do? Are there some interim steps that a parent who is making the shift from external control to Peaceful Parenting® can take? It is very difficult to give up trying to insist our children comply by externally controlling to operating from a Peaceful Parenting® perspective. So here are some steps to help you get started.

Step 1. Set the limit/standard.

Explain to your child why you have set the standard/limit that you have. Whenever possible, ask for your child’s opinion and incorporate his ideas into the standard/limit.

Step 2. Expect compliance.

Explain to your child what your agreed upon standard/limit is. Ask if she understands it and is willing to follow/abide? Explain that you expect she will comply.

Step 3. Make a plan AHEAD of time for possible noncompliance.

Talk with your child about how the two of you should work things out in case he doesn’t follow the limit or meet the standard. Ask him how he wants you to handle this possible event. Explain how you want to handle this possibility differently, that is to avoid punishments, threats or imposing any kind of consequence. Explain that you want to talk with your child about how to work together to reach success.

Step 4. Working things out together if you child doesn’t meet the standard or comply with the limit.

Based on your agreed upon plan made in step 3, follow the plan of talking together. Using the “magical question” ask your child what she wanted that she tried to get by not meeting the standard or abiding by the limit. Work together to come up with a new standard or limit that incorporates your child’s desire responsibly. This may mean that you need to alter your expectation or limit slightly.

Step 5. DON’T GIVE UP

Continue following steps 1-4 until you and your child have worked together successfully and found a mutually agreed upon limit or standard. This is the most important step of all. By continuing to work with your child on this issue he will know that you mean business and are not going to give up until you reach success together. He may be use to your usually attempts at externally controlling him. He is given his punishment, takes it and still gets what he wants eventually. Most children know that parents cannot hang in there long enough. Children “win” by their parent’s lack of staying power. In the Peaceful Parenting® model you and your child both win because you work together to figure out how you both can get what you want.

How the Statute of Limitations Works for Eliminating Credit Card Debt

Most people worry about how they will legally be able to defend themselves against debt collectors. The truth is that if debt collectors are trying to collect on an old debt it is important to see if the statute of limitations has been met. If this is the case than the debt collectors are no longer able to try to collect on the debt thus eliminating it.

As explained by Title 15, Chapter 41, sub chapter I, Part A paragraph 1602 of the Truth in Lending Act a credit card account is viewed as an open account. Many people can be confused about what credit card accounts of theirs meet the statute of limitations requirements. These can be easily calculated by simply researching when you missed your first payment or your first letter arrived in the mail demanding payment. Calculate how much time has passed until the present.

Legally credit card companies have an allotted amount of years in order to collect their debt. This means that your state has a set number of years that if your credit card company is unable to collect the debt and does not file suit than they can no longer legally collect on that debt after that time frame.

You should seek legal counsel in order to completely understand the facts that surround the statute of limitations. There are specific actions that may affect the time that will need to pass in order for the statute of limitations to be reached.

Below is a list of a list of States and the years required:

Alaska 6

Alabama 3

Arkansas 3

Oklahoma 3

Arizona 3

California 4

Colorado 6

Connecticut 6

Delaware 3

Florida 4

Georgia 4

Hawaii 6

Idaho 4

Virginia 3

Illinois 5

Indiana 6

Iowa 5

Kansas 3

Kentucky 5

Louisiana 3

Maine 6

Maryland 3

Massachusetts 6

Michigan 6

Minnesota 6

Mississippi 3

Missouri 5

Montana 5

Nebraska 4

Nevada 4

New Hampshire 3

New Jersey 6

New Mexico 4

New York 6

North Carolina 3

North Dakota 6

Ohio 4

Oregon 6

Pennsylvania 4

Rhode Island 10

South Carolina 3

South Dakota 6

Tennessee 6

Texas 4

Utah 4

Vermont 6

Washington 3

West Virginia 5

Wisconsin 6

Wyoming 8

The Statute of Limitations can be interposed as a defense either before a suit while the account is still in the hands of a bill collector or after suit has been filed. A debt settlement attorney knows when and how to use this defense.

Requirements Imposed on Limited Civil Litigation in the State of California

The topic of this article is a brief discussion of the statutes governing limited civil litigation in California. The statutes governing this are found in Sections 85 through 100 of the Code of Civil Procedure.

Anyone involved in limited civil litigation should carefully read the statutes as the author has worked on numerous cases where the opposing party, including opposing counsel, has propounded an excessive number of discovery requests, and/or has propounded special interrogatories or requests for admission with subparts, for example, a, b, c, d, which are prohibited. Taking this step will avoid situations like the ones just mentioned in which the author prepared objections based on the fact that the discovery requests did not comply with the statutes.

Code of Civil Procedure § 86 lists several different types of cases which are considered limited civil cases. Generally speaking a limited civil case is a civil case in which the principal demand does not exceed $25,000.00, not including attorney’s fees, prejudgment interest or costs.

Note that while the demand in most unlawful detainer (eviction) actions does not exceed $25,000.00, that the normal rules that apply to limited civil cases do NOT apply.

And a limited civil action may be withdrawn from the provisions of Sections 85 through 100 of the Code of Civil Procedure on the grounds that it is impractical to prosecute or defend the action within the limitations of its provisions. The request must be made by noticed motion.

The pleadings allowed in limited civil cases are, complaints, answers, cross-complaints, answers to cross-complaints and general demurrers. Special demurrers are not allowed. Motions to strike are only allowed on the ground that the damages or relief sought are not supported by the allegations of the complaint..

The use of discovery questions in limited civil cases is extremely limited as Code of Civil Procedure § 94 imposes a total limit of any combination of 35 discovery requests including interrogatories, requests for admission, requests for production of documents. See said code section for the other limitations imposed such as only one oral or written deposition.

Note that in limited civil cases, form interrogatories count towards the limit of 35, and that Judicial Council Form DISC-004, titled form interrogatories-limited civil cases MUST be used as they do not contain subparts. Use of any other form interrogatories would be grounds for the responding party to object.

However, supplemental interrogatories and supplemental demands to produce documents may still be utilized.

A party may file a motion with the Court to be relieved from the discovery limitations for limited civil cases. They must show the Court that they cannot adequately prosecute or defend the action without the additional discovery.

The parties may also stipulate to additional discovery so anyone contemplating filing such a motion should first contact the opposing counsel or party to determine whether they will agree to stipulate to the additional discovery.

The author sincerely hopes that you have enjoyed this article.

Yours Truly,
Stan Burman

Copyright 2012 Stan Burman. All rights reserved.

Peaceful Parenting(r) and Setting Limits

Peaceful Parenting® is not “Permissive Parenting.” Just because Peaceful Parents understand that they cannot control their children’s behavior does not mean that whatever a child does is acceptable. As Peaceful Parents we are still obligated to set standards and limits for our children.

In fact, understanding Peaceful Parenting® means understanding why there is a need for setting limits and standards for our children. Our children are born with a genetic instruction for freedom. But this does not mean there are no limits. A Peaceful Parent’s job is to establish boundaries, allowing only as much freedom as a child has responsible behaviors to handle. As we increase our children’s freedom we must teach him/her the increased responsible behaviors to handle the additional freedom. This means setting standards and setting limits.

The distinction between Peaceful Parenting® and other kinds of parenting programs is not in the kinds of standards and limits set. The distinction is how we manage ourselves and our children when our children do not meet our standards or abide by our limits.

Conventional wisdom teaches adults to ensure that children will meet standards and abide by limits by externally controlling the child. If a child does not do his homework, many parents would either punish the child by taking away some privilege or threaten this action. If a child does not follow the limits of his curfew, many parents would take away the child’s privilege of going out the next time.

Many Peaceful Parents expect that their children will complete their homework. Parents who are attempting to follow Peaceful Parenting® ideas still set a curfew when their children leave the house. However, if a Peaceful Parent’s child fails to complete the assigned homework or does not comply with the agreed upon curfew, Peaceful Parents do not attempt to externally control their children. Threats, punishments and consequences are not how these parents work with their children around expectation and limits.

Giving up the urge to externally control our children into compliance is difficult. Because we are parents with expectations we have pictures in our quality worlds of our children meeting our expectations. When they don’t we still feel the urge to get our children to do what we want. The difference is that with Peaceful Parenting® knowledge, we understand that trying to externally control our children is not the answer.

But what can a parent who is learning Peaceful Parenting® do? Are there some interim steps that a parent who is making the shift from external control to Peaceful Parenting® can take? It is very difficult to give up trying to insist our children comply by externally controlling to operating from a Peaceful Parenting® perspective. So here are some steps to help you get started.

Step 1. Set the limit/standard.

Explain to your child why you have set the standard/limit that you have. Whenever possible, ask for your child’s opinion and incorporate his ideas into the standard/limit.

Step 2. Expect compliance.

Explain to your child what your agreed upon standard/limit is. Ask if she understands it and is willing to follow/abide? Explain that you expect she will comply.

Step 3. Make a plan AHEAD of time for possible noncompliance.

Talk with your child about how the two of you should work things out in case he doesn’t follow the limit or meet the standard. Ask him how he wants you to handle this possible event. Explain how you want to handle this possibility differently, that is to avoid punishments, threats or imposing any kind of consequence. Explain that you want to talk with your child about how to work together to reach success.

Step 4. Working things out together if you child doesn’t meet the standard or comply with the limit.

Based on your agreed upon plan made in step 3, follow the plan of talking together. Using the “magical question” ask your child what she wanted that she tried to get by not meeting the standard or abiding by the limit. Work together to come up with a new standard or limit that incorporates your child’s desire responsibly. This may mean that you need to alter your expectation or limit slightly.

Step 5. DON’T GIVE UP

Continue following steps 1-4 until you and your child have worked together successfully and found a mutually agreed upon limit or standard. This is the most important step of all. By continuing to work with your child on this issue he will know that you mean business and are not going to give up until you reach success together. He may be use to your usually attempts at externally controlling him. He is given his punishment, takes it and still gets what he wants eventually. Most children know that parents cannot hang in there long enough. Children “win” by their parent’s lack of staying power. In the Peaceful Parenting® model you and your child both win because you work together to figure out how you both can get what you want.

How the Statute of Limitations Works for Eliminating Credit Card Debt

Most people worry about how they will legally be able to defend themselves against debt collectors. The truth is that if debt collectors are trying to collect on an old debt it is important to see if the statute of limitations has been met. If this is the case than the debt collectors are no longer able to try to collect on the debt thus eliminating it.

As explained by Title 15, Chapter 41, sub chapter I, Part A paragraph 1602 of the Truth in Lending Act a credit card account is viewed as an open account. Many people can be confused about what credit card accounts of theirs meet the statute of limitations requirements. These can be easily calculated by simply researching when you missed your first payment or your first letter arrived in the mail demanding payment. Calculate how much time has passed until the present.

Legally credit card companies have an allotted amount of years in order to collect their debt. This means that your state has a set number of years that if your credit card company is unable to collect the debt and does not file suit than they can no longer legally collect on that debt after that time frame.

You should seek legal counsel in order to completely understand the facts that surround the statute of limitations. There are specific actions that may affect the time that will need to pass in order for the statute of limitations to be reached.

Below is a list of a list of States and the years required:

Alaska 6

Alabama 3

Arkansas 3

Oklahoma 3

Arizona 3

California 4

Colorado 6

Connecticut 6

Delaware 3

Florida 4

Georgia 4

Hawaii 6

Idaho 4

Virginia 3

Illinois 5

Indiana 6

Iowa 5

Kansas 3

Kentucky 5

Louisiana 3

Maine 6

Maryland 3

Massachusetts 6

Michigan 6

Minnesota 6

Mississippi 3

Missouri 5

Montana 5

Nebraska 4

Nevada 4

New Hampshire 3

New Jersey 6

New Mexico 4

New York 6

North Carolina 3

North Dakota 6

Ohio 4

Oregon 6

Pennsylvania 4

Rhode Island 10

South Carolina 3

South Dakota 6

Tennessee 6

Texas 4

Utah 4

Vermont 6

Washington 3

West Virginia 5

Wisconsin 6

Wyoming 8

The Statute of Limitations can be interposed as a defense either before a suit while the account is still in the hands of a bill collector or after suit has been filed. A debt settlement attorney knows when and how to use this defense.